Viktor Emil Frankl 

Viktor Emil Frankl, MD

Viktor Emil Frankl was an Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, philosopher, writer, and Holocaust survivor. He developed the psychological approach known as logotherapy, widely recognized as the “third school” of Viennese psychotherapy, after the “first school” of Sigmund Freud and the “second school” of Alfred Adler.

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Rita Sapiro Finkler 

Rita Sapiro Finkler, MD

Ukrainian-born endocrinologist Rita Sapiro Finkler devoted much of her clinical research to women’s health and helped female doctors impacted by World War II come to the United States. She was the first female intern at Philadelphia Polyclinic. While Finkler originally studied pediatrics and obstetrics, she was drawn to endocrinology, a new field at the time. After returning to Europe, she helped develop the Aschheim-Zondek Reaction to detect early pregnancies. She advocated for women in her practice, researching topics like fertility issues caused by malnutrition during World War II and through her involvement with the American Medical Women’s Association.

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Baruj Benacerraf  

Baruj Benacerraf, MD

Baruj Benacerraf was a Venezuelan-American immunologist, born in Caracas, Venezuela on October 29, 1920, to Moroccan Jewish parents. He shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface protein molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self.

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Gerty Cori 

Gerty Cori, MD

For her research on carbohydrate metabolism, biochemist Gerty Cori became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Born in Prague, Cori met her husband and research collaborator Carl Ferdinand Cori in medical school at the University of Prague. After moving to the United States because of growing anti-Semitism in Europe, she faced difficulties obtaining research positions. They eventually were hired at Washington University in St. Louis.

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