Once the chemo treatment is over, the side effects will go away over time as your healthy cells have a chance to grow normally.  How long this takes depends on many things including your overall health and the type of chemotherapy you have been given. 
Most people have no serious long-term problems from chemotherapy.  However, in some people, chemotherapy can cause permanent changes or damage to the heart, lungs, nerves, kidneys, reproductive or other organs.  Some types of chemotherapy may have delayed effects, such as a second cancer, that show up many years later.
The short and long term side effects and the toxicity of chemotherapy can be concerning.  But the rigors and risks of chemotherapy must be weighed against the danger of the cancer invading your body. Discuss any concerns you have with your oncologist and and cancer care team.  Riverside also offers support and information.