Giant cell arteritis
Giant cell arteritis
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammation of the lining of your arteries — the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your body. Most often, it affects the arteries in your head, especially those in your temples. For this reason, giant cell arteritis is sometimes called temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis.
Giant cell arteritis frequently causes headaches, jaw pain, and blurred or double vision. Blindness and, less often, stroke are the most serious complications of giant cell arteritis.
Prompt treatment with corticosteroid medications usually relieves symptoms of giant cell arteritis and may prevent loss of vision. You'll likely begin to feel better within days of starting your treatment.
The most common symptoms of giant cell arteritis are head pain and tenderness — often severe — that usually occurs in both temples. Some people, however, have pain in only one temple or in the front of the head.
Signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis can vary. For some people, the onset of the condition feels like the flu — with muscle aches throughout the body (myalgia), fever and fatigue, as well as headaches.
Generally, signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis include:
Pain and stiffness in the neck, arms or hips are common symptoms of a related disorder, polymyalgia rheumatica. Approximately half the people with GCA also have polymyalgia rheumatica.
When to see a doctor
Giant cell arteritis
Giant cell arteritis causes inflammation of certain arteries, especially those near the temples. ...
Your arteries are pliable tubes with thick, elastic walls. Oxygenated blood leaves your heart through your body's main artery, the aorta. The aorta then subdivides into smaller arteries that deliver blood to all parts of your body, including your brain and internal organs.
With giant cell arteritis, some of these arteries become inflamed, causing them to swell. Just what causes these arteries to become inflamed isn't known.
Although almost any large or medium-sized artery can be affected, swelling most often occurs in the temporal arteries in your head, which are located just in front of your ears and continue up into your scalp. In some cases, the swelling affects just part of an artery, with sections of normal vessel in between.
Although the exact cause of giant cell arteritis isn't known, several factors can increase your risk, including:
Giant cell arteritis can cause the following complications:
Preparing for your appointment
If you have signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis, you're likely to start by seeing your primary care doctor. In some cases, your doctor may also refer you to an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) if you're having visual symptoms, a brain and nervous system specialist (neurologist) if you're having headaches, or a joint specialist (rheumatologist) if you're having symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica.
Because appointments can be brief and there may be many things to discuss, it's a good idea to be prepared. Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.
What you can do
Preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time with your doctor and may ensure that you cover all the points that are important to you. For GCA, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask any additional questions that come up during your appointment.
What to expect from your doctor
What you can do in the meantime
Tests and diagnosis
Giant cell arteritis can be difficult to diagnose because its early symptoms resemble those of many common conditions. For this reason, your doctor will try to rule out other possible causes of your problem.
To help diagnose giant cell arteritis, you may have some or all of the following tests:
This test measures how quickly red blood cells fall to the bottom of a tube of blood. Red cells that drop rapidly may indicate inflammation in your body. You may also have a test that measures C-reactive protein (CRP), a substance your liver produces when inflammation is present. The same tests may be used to follow your progress during treatment.
Although a temporal artery biopsy is the standard test for diagnosing GCA, imaging tests may also be used for diagnosing GCA and for monitoring treatment. Possible tests include:
Treatments and drugs
Treatment for GCA consists of high doses of a corticosteroid drug such as prednisone. Because immediate treatment is necessary to prevent vision loss, your doctor is likely to start medication even before confirming the diagnosis with a biopsy.
You should start feeling better within just a few days, but you may need to continue taking medication for one to two years or longer. After the first month, your doctor may gradually begin to lower the dosage until you reach the lowest dose of corticosteroids needed to control inflammation as measured by sed rate and CRP tests. Some of your symptoms may return during this tapering period.
What are corticosteroids?
Older adults, who are most likely to be treated for giant cell arteritis, are particularly at risk of side effects because they're more prone to certain conditions that also may be caused by corticosteroids. These include:
Other possible side effects of corticosteroid therapy include:
To counter the potential side effects of corticosteroid treatment, your doctor is likely to monitor your bone density and may prescribe calcium and vitamin D supplements or other medications to help prevent bone loss. Your doctor is also likely to monitor your blood pressure and may recommend an exercise program, diet changes and medication to keep blood pressure within a normal range. Most side effects go away when the corticosteroid treatment is stopped.
One drug under investigation is methotrexate, which is often used to treat certain cancers and some inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The hope is that by using both methotrexate and prednisone to treat people with GCA, it would be possible to use less prednisone. Preliminary research results are conflicting, so more research is needed.
Ask your doctor about taking between 81 and 100 milligrams of aspirin daily (anti-platelet therapy). Taken on a daily basis, aspirin may reduce the risk of blindness and stroke.
Lifestyle and home remedies
When giant cell arteritis is diagnosed and treated early, the prognosis is usually excellent. Your symptoms should improve quickly after beginning corticosteroid treatment, and your vision isn't likely to be affected. Your greatest challenge in this case may be coping with any side effects of your medication. The following suggestions may help:
Coping and support
Learning everything you can about giant cell arteritis and its treatment can help you feel more in control of your condition. Your health care team can answer your questions, and online support groups may also be of help. Know the possible side effects of any medication you take, and report any changes in your health to your doctor.
Last Updated: 2010-07-20
© 1998-2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.com," "Mayo Clinic Health Information," "Reliable information for a healthier life" and the triple-shield Mayo logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
Terms and conditions of use