Gingivitis is a very common and mild form of gum (periodontal) disease that causes irritation, redness and swelling (inflammation) of your gums. Because gingivitis can be very mild, you may not be aware that you have the condition. But it's important to take gingivitis seriously and treat it promptly. Gingivitis can lead to much more serious gum disease (periodontitis) and eventual tooth loss.
The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. Good oral health habits, such as regular professional checkups and daily brushing and flossing, can help prevent gingivitis.
Healthy gums are firm and pale pink. If your gums are puffy, dusky red and bleed easily, you may have gingivitis. Because gingivitis is seldom painful, you can have gingivitis without even knowing it. Signs and symptoms of gingivitis may include:
When to see a dentist
A healthy tooth is protected by hard, white enamel and firm, pink gums. ...
Gingivitis can cause dusky red, swollen, tender gums that bleed easily, especially when you brush your teeth. ...
The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene that encourages plaque to form. Plaque is an invisible, sticky film composed mainly of bacteria. Plaque forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. Brushing and flossing your teeth each day removes plaque. Plaque requires daily removal because it re-forms quickly, usually within 24 hours.
Plaque that stays on your teeth longer than two or three days can harden under your gumline into tartar (calculus). Tartar makes plaque more difficult to remove and creates a protective shield for bacteria. You usually can't get rid of tartar by brushing and flossing — you need a professional dental cleaning to remove it.
The longer that plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, the more they irritate the gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth. In time, your gums become swollen and bleed easily.
Gingivitis is very common, and anyone can develop it. Many people first experience gum problems during puberty and then in varying degrees throughout life.
Factors that can increase your risk of gingivitis include:
Untreated gingivitis can progress to gum disease that spreads to underlying tissue and bone (periodontitis), a much more serious condition that can lead to tooth loss. Periodontitis and poor oral health in general may also affect your overall health in ways that aren't completely understood. Studies link periodontitis to an increased risk of heart attack, stroke or lung disease. And women with periodontitis may be more likely to give birth to premature babies or babies with low birth weight than are women with healthy gums. Although more research is needed, these studies highlight the importance of taking good care of your teeth and gums.
Preparing for your appointment
Follow your dentist's recommended schedule for regular checkups. If you notice any symptoms of gingivitis, make an appointment with your dentist. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your dentist.
What you can do
Don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment at any time if you don't understand something.
What to expect from your dentist
Tests and diagnosis
Dentists usually diagnose gingivitis based on symptoms you describe and an examination of your teeth, gums, mouth and tongue. Your dentist will look for plaque and tartar buildup on your teeth and check your gums for redness, puffiness and easy bleeding.
If it's not clear what has caused your gingivitis, your dentist may recommend that you get a medical evaluation to check for underlying health conditions.
Treatments and drugs
Prompt treatment can usually reverse symptoms of gingivitis and prevent its progression to more serious gum disease and tooth loss. Effective treatment requires professional care followed by stepped up oral hygiene at home.
Professional gingivitis care includes:
Follow-up home care includes:
Your initial professional cleaning will include use of dental instruments to remove all traces of plaque and tartar — a procedure known as scaling. Scaling may be uncomfortable, especially if your gums are already sensitive or you have extensive plaque and tartar buildup.
Misaligned teeth or poorly fitting crowns, bridges or other dental restorations may irritate your gums and also make it harder to remove plaque during your daily home care. If any of these conditions is contributing to your gingivitis, your dentist may recommend fixing these problems.
Gingivitis usually clears up after a thorough professional cleaning — as long as you continue to follow a program of good oral hygiene at home. Your dentist will help you plan an effective home follow-up program. He or she will review brushing and flossing techniques to make sure you're getting maximum benefit from your home cleaning. Your dentist may also recommend using an antiseptic mouth rinse to help clear away bacteria.
If you're consistent with your home hygiene, you should see the return of pink, healthy gum tissue within days or weeks. You'll need to practice good oral hygiene for life, however, so your gum problems don't return.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Care at home plays a key role in preventing and reversing gingivitis. Steps you can take at home include:
The best way to prevent gingivitis is a program of good dental hygiene, one that you begin early and practice consistently throughout life. That means brushing your teeth at least twice daily — in the morning and before going to bed — and flossing at least once a day. Better yet, brush after every meal or snack or as your dentist recommends. A complete cleaning with a toothbrush and floss should take three to five minutes. Flossing before you brush allows you to clean away the loosened food particles and bacteria.
Also, see your dentist or dental hygienist regularly for professional cleanings, usually every six to 12 months. If you have risk factors that increase your chance of developing gingivitis, you may need professional dental cleanings more often.
Last Updated: 2010-11-18
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