Back pain is a common complaint. Most people in the United States will experience low back pain at least once during their lives. Back pain is one of the most common reasons people go to the doctor or miss work.
On the bright side, you can take measures to prevent or lessen most back pain episodes. If prevention fails, simple home treatment and proper body mechanics will often heal your back within a few weeks and keep it functional for the long haul. Surgery is rarely needed to treat back pain.
Symptoms of back pain may include:
When to see a doctor
In rare cases, back pain can signal a serious medical problem. Seek immediate care if your back pain:
Contact a doctor if your back pain:
Also, see your doctor if you start having back pain for the first time after age 50, or if you have a history of cancer, osteoporosis, steroid use, or drug or alcohol abuse.
Back pain often develops without a specific cause that your doctor can identify with a test or imaging study. Conditions commonly linked to back pain include:
Anyone can develop back pain, even children and teens. Although excess weight, lack of exercise and improper lifting are often blamed for back pain, research looking at these possible risk factors hasn't yet provided any clear-cut answers.
One group that does appear to have a greater risk of back pain are people with certain psychological issues, such as depression and anxiety, though the reasons why there's an increased risk aren't known.
Preparing for your appointment
If you have back pain that's lasted for at least a few days and isn't improving, make an appointment with your family doctor or primary care provider.
Here's some information to help you prepare for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor.
What you can do
For back pain, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
What to expect from your doctor
What you can do in the meantime
Try to keep to your normal activities as much as possible, unless your work normally requires heavy lifting. If a particular activity increases your pain, stop doing that activity.
Tests and diagnosis
Diagnostic tests aren't usually necessary to confirm the cause of your back pain. However, if you do see your doctor for back pain, he or she will examine your back and assess your ability to sit, stand, walk and lift your legs. Your doctor may also test your reflexes with a rubber reflex hammer.
These assessments help determine where the pain comes from, how much you can move before pain forces you to stop and whether you have muscle spasms. They will also help rule out more-serious causes of back pain.
If there is reason to suspect a specific condition may be causing your back pain, your doctor may order one or more tests:
Treatments and drugs
Most back pain gets better with a few weeks of home treatment and careful attention. Over-the-counter pain relievers may be all that you need to improve your pain. A short period of bed rest is OK, but more than a couple of days actually does more harm than good. Continue your daily activities as much as you can tolerate. Light activity, such as walking and daily activities of living, is usually OK. But, if an activity increases your pain, stop doing that activity. If home treatments aren't working after several weeks, your doctor may suggest stronger medications or other therapies.
Narcotics, such as codeine or hydrocodone, may be used for a short period of time with close supervision by your doctor.
Low doses of certain types of antidepressants — particularly tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline — have been shown to relieve chronic back pain, independent of their effect on depression.
Physical therapy and exercise
In some cases, your doctor may inject numbing medication and cortisone into or near the structures believed to be causing your back pain, such as the facet joints of the vertebrae. Located on the sides, top and bottom of each vertebra, these joints connect the vertebrae to one another and stabilize the spine while still allowing flexibility.
A number of alternative treatments are available that may help ease symptoms of back pain. Always discuss the benefits and risks with your doctor before starting any new alternative therapy.
You may be able to avoid back pain by improving your physical condition and learning and practicing proper body mechanics.
To keep your back healthy and strong:
Use proper body mechanics:
Last Updated: 2012-09-11
© 1998-2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.com," "Mayo Clinic Health Information," "Reliable information for a healthier life" and the triple-shield Mayo logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
Terms and conditions of use